Forensic DNA analysis involves testing of biological samples left at a scene to determine a DNA profile which can then be compared to the known profile of an individual or entered into the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a national database of DNA profiles, to search for a potential match. The first step, serology, determines the nature of the biological sample and indicates the potential for a DNA profile to be developed with further testing. This further testing, using a technique called capillary electrophoresis, results in a profile that illustrates multiple locations (loci) on the DNA molecule.
The Scientific Analysis Bureau provides serology and forensic DNA analysis using the most modern DNA scientific services for the examination of crime evidence to identify or exonerate individuals. DNA analysis is offered at the Central, Southern and Northern laboratories.
The Combined DNA Index System is the DNA database utilized in the United States. Created and maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, it involves various levels of databases at local, state and national levels which allow searching of unknown DNA profiles against other unknown forensic profiles, convicted offender profiles, and arrestee profiles.
The Scientific Analysis Bureau serves as the State Combined DNA Index System (SDIS) Database for Arizona and uploads an average of approximately 22,000 convicted offender and arrestee samples into CODIS each year. This analysis is provided at the Central laboratory.
Familial DNA analysis is a delibrate search of convicted offender and arrestee DNA profiles to identify candidates who are potential close biological relatives to an unknown DNA profile. A statistical comparison is completed to accomplish this, providing analysts with a list of candidates for further analysis who have a higher statistical likelihood of being relatives of the unknown profile. Once this additional analysis is complete, investigators are provided with a list of any remaining candidates for further investigation.
The Scientific Analysis Bureau provides familial DNA analysis in select cases at the Central laboratory. Arizona is the twelfth state to offer this type of testing.
Familial DNA Analysis Flyer
Rapid DNA is technology that allows for the multiple steps of DNA analysis to be consolidated in a single instrument and performed very quickly (within 2 hours). The Scientific Analysis Bureau was the first state agency to bring Rapid DNA analysis online as a law enforcement program where officers and crime scene technicians are trained in the use of the Rapid instrumentation. These Rapid operators can then run select types of crime scene samples outside of the laboratory in order to develop investigative leads more quickly than possible through normal crime laboratory analysis.
The Scientific Analysis Bureau provides training and support for this statewide Rapid DNA program through the Central laboratory and has Rapid instruments located for use at the Central and Southern laboratories.
Rapid DNA Law Enforcement Program Flyer